Ronald E. Polk, Pharm.D.
Emeritus Professor
Department of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science
  • School of Pharmacy
    Dept of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science

    410 N 12th Street
    Box 980533
    Richmond, VA 23298-0533
  • (804) 828-0343
Ron Polk received his Bachelor of Pharmacy degree from Washington State University in 1971 and his Doctor of Pharmacy degree from the University of Michigan in 1973. He is currently a Professor of Pharmacy and Medicine at Virginia Commonwealth University/Medical College of Virginia Campus in Richmond. He is a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (FIDSA), past member of the program committee of the Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) and a founding member and past-president of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. He has published approximately 100 peer-reviewed journal articles on a variety of infectious diseases topics and he is an author or co-author in a number of medical textbooks including Harrisons’ Principles of Internal Medicine [Therapy and Prophylaxis of Bacterial Infections], Mandell’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases [Antimicrobial Stewardship] and Wenzel’s Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections [Measuring Antimicrobial Prescribing and Bacterial Resistance]. His current research interests include the pharmacoepidemiology of hospital antibiotic use and its relationship to bacterial resistance and Clostridium difficile disease. He and his collaborators has presented in excess of 40 abstracts at professional meeting on these topics since year 2000, and have published some of the seminal manuscripts in this area. In 2009 he received the Miller Award from the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) for sustained contributions to the literature.

Area of Focus

  • * Infectious Disease
  • * Epidemiology of Antibiotic Use and Resistance


  • Pharm.D., Pharmacy (University of Michigan, 1973)
  • B.A., Pharmacy (Washington State University, 1971)


PubMed Search
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Books/Book Chapters

  • Archer, G.L., and Polk, R.E. Therapy and Prophylaxis of Bacterial Infections. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine,). Isselbacher, Braunwald, Wilson, Martin, Fauci, Kasper (eds). McGraw Hill. 13 th Edition (Chapter 99) 1994, 14th Edition (1997), 15 th edition (2001) and 16 th edition (2004), 17 th edition (2007), 18 th edition, (2009).
  • Polk RE, Fishman NO. “Antimicrobial Management and Cost Containment” (6th edition) and “Antimicrobial Stewardship”(7 th edition), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Mandell, Benett, Douglas (eds). Churchill Livingstone, November 2004, (6 th edition) and September 2009 (7 th edition).
  • Pakyz A and Polk R. Antibiotic Use in Hospitals in the United States SCOPE- MMIT Antimicrobial Surveillance Network in Antibiotic Policies: Fighting Resistance, Gould, Ian M.; van der Meer, Jos W.M. (Eds.) 2007, Approx. 450 p. 29 illus., Hardcover. ISBN: 978-0-387-70840-9
  • Polk, RE, Qaquish R. “Drug-Drug Interactions with Antimicrobials”, in of “ Antimicrobial and Chemotherapy” , 8th edition, Finch, Greenwood, Norrby & Whitley (eds). Churchill Livingstone, London. (2003)
  • Qaquish R, Polk RE. “Fluoroquinolone Drug-Drug Interactions”. In, “ Quinolone Antimicorbial Agents ”, 3 rd edition, edited by David Hooper, M.D. (Harvard) and Ethan Rubenstein, M.D. (Tel Aviv, Israel). American Society for Microbiology (2003)
  • Polk RE. “Measuring Antimicrobial Prescribing and Bacterial Resistance” in, “ Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections ”. (Chapter 15), 4 th edition, Dr. Richard Wenzel (ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2003)

Recent Publications

  • Mera Ababneh, Spencer Harpe, Michael Oinonen, Ron E. Polk, Trends in Aminoglycoside Use and Gentamicin-Resistant Gram-negative Clinical Isolates in a Network of U.S. Academic Medical Centers: Implications for Antimicrobial Stewardship. (in review)
  • Spencer E. Harpe,; Timothy J. Inocencio 1 ; Amy Pakyz,; Michael Oinonen,; Ronald E. Polk,: Characterization of continued antibacterial therapy after diagnosis with nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection (in review).
  • Pakyz AL , Carroll NV , Harpe SE , Oinonen M , Polk RE . Increase in use of vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection in US hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31:867-8.
  • Schmiedeskamp, M, Harpe S, Polk R, Oinonen M, Pakyz, A. Using ICD-9-CM Codes and Drug Utilization Data To Identify Nosocomial Clostridium difficile Infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009; 30:1070-107
  • Pakyz AL, Gurgle HE, Ibrahim OM, Oinonen MJ, Polk RE. Trends in Antibacterial Use in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients in United States Academic Health Centers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol . 2009;30:600–603
  • Pakyz AL, Oinonen M, Polk RE. Effect of Carbapenem Restriction on Carbapenem Use and Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 22 Hospitals. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2009; 53:1983-1986.
  • Robles, JR, Youmans S, Byrd D, Polk RE. Barriers to Scholarship and Research among Pharmacy Practice Faculty: Report from the Scholarship/Research Faculty Development Task Force, Section of Teachers of Pharmacy Practice. Am J Pharma Ed 2009; 71: (1), article 17.
  • Pakyz AL, Conan MacDougall, Michael Oinonen, Ronald E. Polk, Adult Antibacterial Use in U.S. Academic Health Centers: 2002 to 2006: Arch Intern Med . 2008;168(20):2254-2260
  • Pakyz AL, J. Patrick Powell., Spencer E. Harpe, Chris Johnson, Michael Edmond., Ron E. Polk. Assessment of Diversity (or Heterogeneity) of Antibiotic Use in 42 U.S. Hospitals. Pharmacotherapy 2008;28(7):906–912. a. MacDougall, C., Polk RE. . Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008; 29:203-211.
  • Lautenbach E. Polk RE. Resistant gram-negative bacilli: A neglected healthcare crisis? Am J HealthSystems Pharmacy. 2007 (supplement 14); 64:S3-21.
  • Polk RE, Letcavage J, Mahoney A, MacDougall C. Adult Antibiotic Usage in 131 US hospitals: Comparison of Defined Daily Dose (DDD) to Duration of Therapy (DOT)/1000 patient days (PD). Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2007;44:664-70., and Polk RE. “Reply to Dalton”. Letter to the editor, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2007;45:399-401.
  • Pakyz A, Tran K, Oininen, M, Polk E. Variability in Hospital-wide Antibiogram Methodology Among 29 University Teaching Hospitals. Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists Newsletter, Summer 2006. (Companion paper is in press, Pharmacotherapy)
  • MacDougall C, Polk RE. Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Health Care Systems. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2005 18: 638-656.
  • Conan MacDougall, J. Patrick Powell, Christopher K. Johnson, Michael B. Edmond, Ronald E. Polk. Hospital and community fluoroquinolone use and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in 17 U.S. hospitals. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41: 435-40. (August 15).
  • MacDougall C, Harpe SE, Powell JP, Johnson CK, Edmond MB, Polk RE. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , and fluoroquinolone use. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2005 Aug [ date cited ]. Available from
  • Polk R, C. Johnson, D. McClish, R. Wenzel, M. Edmond. Predicting Hospital Rates of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa From Fluoroquinolone Use in U.S. Hospitals and Their Surrounding Communities. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2004; 39:487-503.
  • P. Cook, P. Catrou, J. Christie, P. Young and R. Polk. Reduction in broad-spectrum antimicrobial use associated with no improvement in hospital antibiogram.; Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2004; 53: 853-859.
  • Sadler BM, Chittick GE, Polk RE, Slain D, Kerkering TM, Studenberg SD, Lou Y, Moore KHP, Wooley JL, Stein DS. Metabolic disposition and pharmacokinetics of [C14]-amprenavir, a human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor, administered in a single oral dose to healthy male subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;41(4):386-96.
  • Hafner R, Bethel J, Standiford HC, Follansbee S, Cohn DL, Polk RE, Mole L, Raasch R, Kumar P, Mushatt D, Drusano G. Tolerance and pharmacokinetic interactions of rifabutin and azithromycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 May;45(5):1572-7.
  • DF. Brophy, DS.Israel, A Pastor,C Gillotin, G Chittick, WT. Symonds, Yu L, BM. Sadler,RE. Polk. Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Amprenavir and Clarithromycin Following Their Co-Administration to Healthy Male Volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemo 44:978-984, 2000
  • R.E. Polk, DF. Brophy , D S. Israel, R Patron, B M. Sadler, G E. Chittick, WT. Symonds, W Gouldin, Yu L, D Kristoff, D.S. Stein. Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Amprenavir and Rifabutin and Rifampin in Healthy Males. Antimicrob Agents Chemo 45:502-508, 2001
  • Monroe S, Polk RE. Antimicrobial drug use and bacterial resistance. Current Opinion in Microbiology 3:496-50,2000.
  • Slain D, Pakyz A, Israel D, Monroe S, Polk RE. Variability in Activity of Hepatic CYP3A4 in Patients Infected with HIV. Pharmacotherapy, 20:898-907, 2000.