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Gretchen M. Brophy, Pharm.D., BCPS, FCCP, FCCM, FNCS


Professor
Department of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science

Location:  Smith Building, Room 642
Phone: (804) 828-1201
Email: gbrophy@vcu.edu
Web: Research Website


Gretchen M. Brophy, PharmD, BCPS, FCCP, FCCM, FNCS is Professor of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Sciences and Neurosurgery with Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) School of Pharmacy, Medical College of Virginia Campus, in Richmond. She is also a Neurocritical Care Clinical Pharmacist, VCU Health System. Dr. Brophy received her PharmD from the University of Arizona, College of Pharmacy in Tucson and her postgraduate training includes residencies in Critical Care and Pharmacy Practice at the University of Kentucky Medical Center in Lexington. She is currently the Treasurer of the Neurocritical Care Society. Dr. Brophy’s research interests include effective treatments strategies for traumatic brain injury, neurocritical care, stroke, hemostasis, sedation and status epilepticus. She is an investigator in NIH and DoD funded studies, an invited speaker at national and international conferences, and publishes in the area of neurocritical care.

Mailing Address

School of Pharmacy
Dept of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science

410 N 12th Street
P.O. Box 980533
Richmond, VA 23298-0533
Fax: (804) 828-0343


Area of Focus

  • Neurocritical Care
  • Biomarkers
  • Microdialysis
  • Neuroprotection
  • Kinetic Characteristics of Traumatic Brain Injury

Education

  • Pharm.D., Pharmacy (University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, )
  • Pharm.D., Doctor of Pharmacy (Arizona, 1994)

Research Interests

  • Neuroprotection
  • Brain Injury Biomarker Kinetics
  • Neurocritical Care
  • FVII in Neurosurgery Patients

Publications

PubMed Search
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  • Books/Book Chapters
    • Flurie RW, Brophy GM, Kirkwood CK. Active learning strategies. In: Schwinghammer TL et al, eds. Pharmacotherapy Casebook: A Patient-Focused Approach. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2017. (Accepted).
    • Miller CM, Pineda J, Corry M, Brophy G, Smith WS, editors. Emergency Neurologic Life Support (ENLS): Evolution of Management in the First Hours of a Neurological Emergency. Springer Link Publishing. Neurocrit Care 2015;23(sup 2).
    • Tesoro EP, Brophy GM. Valproic Acid. In: Cohen H, ed. Casebook in Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Drug Dosing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2015;213-219.
    • Kim K, Brophy GM. Antiepileptic Drugs: Second Generation/Newer Agents. In: Cohen H, ed. Casebook in Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Drug Dosing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2015;43-55.
    • Brophy GM, Castle A, Neyens R, Szabo C. American Association of Neuroscience Nurses Comprehensive Review for Stroke Nursing. Medications. In: Livesay S, ed. United States of America:American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, 2014;139-199.
    • Sicat BL, Brophy GM, Kirkwood CK. Active learning strategies. In: Schwinghammer TL, Koehler JM, eds. Pharmacotherapy Casebook: A Patient-Focused Approach. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2014;9-12.
    • Brophy GM, Tesoro EP. Status Epilepticus. In: Well B et al. eds. Pharmacotherapy Principles and Practice. 2nd Ed. New York, NY:McGraw-Hill, 2013; 579-589.
    • Tesoro EP, Brophy GM. Epilepsy: Status Epilepticus. In: Katz M et al. eds. Pharmacotherapy Principles and Practice Study Guide. New York, NY:McGraw-Hill, 2014;141-143.
    • Brophy GM, Tesoro EP. Prophylaxis of Seizures in the ICU Population. In: LaRoche S ed. Handbook of ICU EEG Monitoring. 1st Ed. New York, NY:Demos Medical Publishing, 2013:289-94.
    • Voils, S, Brophy GM. Drug induced seizures. In: Papadopoulos et al. Eds. Drug induced complications in the critically ill patients: a guide for recognition and treatment. Mount Prospect, IL: Society of Critical Care Medicine, July 2012;117-125.
    • Voils SA, Brophy GM. Neurotrauma: Updates and Controversies. In: Chant C, et al, eds. Pharmacotherapy Self-Assessment Program. 6th ed. Pulmonary/Critical Care. Kansas City, MO: American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 2008:111-125.
    • Brackbill ML, Brophy GM. Optimizing drug therapy and enteral nutrition: preventing drug-nutrient interactions. In: Latifi R and Dudrick SJ, editors. The Biology and Practice of Current Nutrition Support. Austin, TX: R.G. Landes Biomedical Publishing Company, 2003:145-57.
  • Recent Publications
    • Miller CM, Pineda J, Corry M, Brophy G, Smith WS. Emergency Neurologic Life Support (ENLS): Evolution of Management in the First Hours of a Neurological Emergency. Neurocrit Care 2015;23(sup 2): 1-4.
    • Brophy GM, Human T, Shutter L. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Pharmacotherapy. Neurocrit Care. 2015 Dec;23 Suppl 2:48-68. doi: 10.1007/s12028-015-0158-1.
    • Brophy GM, Mohammed BM, Smith AL, Graham RS, Martin EJ, Brophy DF. Use of Recombinant Activated Factor VII to Treat Coagulopathy after Traumatic Brain Injury. [submitted for publication]
    • Bayrlee A, Ganeshalingam N, Kurczewski L, Brophy GM. Treatment of Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus.Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2015 Oct;15(10):589. doi: 10.1007/s11910-015-0589-2.
    • Wavra T, Laux C, Guanci MM, Figueroa SA, Brophy GM, Kurczewski L, Livesay SL. Clinical Q & A: Translating Therapeutic Temperature Management from Theory to Practice. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2015 Aug 18. [Epub ahead of print]
    • White NJ, Contaifer D Jr, Martin EJ, Newton JC, Mohammed BM, Bostic JL, Brophy GM, Spiess BD, Pusateri AE, Ward KR, Brophy DF. Early Hemostatic Responses to Trauma: Identified Using Hierarchical Clustering Analysis. J Thromb Haemost. 2015 Jun;13(6):978-88. Mar 28. doi: 10.1111/jth.12919. [Epub ahead of print]
    • Arnold Tóth, Ilona Schmalfuss, Shelley C. Heaton, Andrea Gabrielli, H. Julia Hannay, Linda Papa, Gretchen M. Brophy, Kevin K.W. Wang, András Büki, Attila Schwarcz, Ronald L. Hayes, Claudia S. Robertson,Steven A. Robicsek. Lateral Ventricle Volume Asymmetry Predicts Midline Shift in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2015;32:1309-11. March 9. [Epub ahead of print] DOI: 10.1089/neu.2014.3696
    • Nathan J White, Jason C Newton, Erika J Martin, Bassem M Mohammed, Daniel Contaifer, Jessica L Bostic, Gretchen M Brophy, Bruce D. Spiess, Anthony E. Pusateri, Kevin R. Ward, Donald F Brophy. Clot Formation is Associated With Fibrinogen and Platelet Forces in a Cohort of Severely-Injured Emergency Department Trauma Patients. Multiple Coagulation Activation States are Present in Emergency Department Trauma Patients. Shock. 2015 Jan 30. [Epub ahead of print]
    • Papa L, Robertson CS, Wang KK, Brophy GM, Hannay HJ, Heaton S, Schmalfuss I, Gabrielli A, Hayes RL, Robicsek SA. Biomarkers Improve Clinical Outcome Predictors of Mortality Following Non-Penetrating Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurocrit Care 2014; Jul 23. [Epub ahead of print].
    • Peter Le Roux, David K. Menon, Giuseppe Citerio, Paul Vespa; Mary Kay Bader, Gretchen Brophy, Michael N. Diringer, Nino Stocchetti, Walter Videtta, Rocco Armonda, Neeraj Badjatia, Julian Böesel, Randall Chesnut, Sherry Chou, Jan Claassen, Marek Czosnyka, Michael De Georgia, Anthony Figaji, Jennifer Fugate, Raimund Helbok, David Horowitz, Peter Hutchinson, Monisha Kumar, Molly McNett, Chad Miller, Andrew Naidech, Mauro Oddo, DaiWai Olson, Kristine O’Phelan, J. Javier Provencio, Corinna Puppo, Richard Riker, Claudia Roberson, Michael Schmidt, Fabio Taccone. Consensus Summary Statement of the International Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring in Neurocritical Care A Statement for Healthcare Professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and the European Society of Critical Care Medicine. Dual publication in Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec;21 Suppl 2:297-361. doi: 10.1007/s12028-014-0081-x.Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print] and Intensive Care Med. 2014 Sep;40(9):1189-209. doi: 10.1007/s00134-014-3369-6. Epub 2014 Aug 20.
    • Peter Le Roux, David K. Menon, Giuseppe Citerio, Paul Vespa; Mary Kay Bader, Gretchen Brophy, Michael N. Diringer, Nino Stocchetti, Walter Videtta, Rocco Armonda, Neeraj Badjatia, Julian Böesel, Randall Chesnut, Sherry Chou, Jan Claassen, Marek Czosnyka, Michael De Georgia, Anthony Figaji, Jennifer Fugate, Raimund Helbok, David Horowitz, Peter Hutchinson, Monisha Kumar, Molly McNett, Chad Miller, Andrew Naidech, Mauro Oddo, DaiWai Olson, Kristine O’Phelan, J. Javier Provencio, Corinna Puppo, Richard Riker, Claudia Roberson, Michael Schmidt, Fabio Taccone. The international multidisciplinary consensus conference on multimodality monitoring in neurocritical care: a list of recommendations and additional conclusions: a statement for healthcare professionals from the neurocritical care society and the European society of intensive care medicine. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec;21 Suppl 2:282-96. doi: 10.1007/s12028-014-0077-6.
    • Brophy GM, Floroff CK, Harpe SE, Slattum PW. Critical Illness and the Aging Population: Clinical Implications and Therapeutic Challenges. J Neurol Disord 2015;3:197. doi: 10.4172/2329-6895.1000197.
    • Papa L, Silvestri S, Brophy GM, Giordano P, Falk JL, Braga CF, Tan CN, Ameli NJ, Demery JA, Dixit NK, Mendes ME, Hayes RL, Wang KK, Robertson CS. GFAP Out-performs S100B In Detecting Traumatic Intracranial Lesions On CT In Trauma Patients With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury And Those With Extracranial Lesions. J Neurotrauma 2014;31:1815–1822. (November 15, 2014) Jun 6,2014 [Epub ahead of print]
    • Voils SA, Human T, Brophy GM. Adverse neurologic effects of medications commonly used in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Clin. 2014 Oct;30(4):795-811. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2014.06.009. Epub 2014 Aug 10.
    • Floroff CK, Slattum PW, Harpe SE, Taylor P, Brophy GM. Response to "Modifications to the Drug Burden Index Calculation May Limit Interpretation of Its Association With Clinical Outcomes In Older Adults" Neurocrit Care. 2014 Sep 13. [Epub ahead of print] DOI 10.1007/s12028-014-0015-7.
    • Floroff C, Slattum P, Harpe S, Taylor P, Brophy GM. Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use is Associated with Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Elderly Patients with Neurological Patients. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec;21(3):526-33. doi: 10.1007/s12028-014-9985-8. May 8. [Epub ahead of print]
    • Rowe AS, Goodwin H, Brophy GM, Bushwitz J, Castle A, Deen D, Johnson D, Lesch C, Liang N, Potter E, Roels C, Samaan K, Rhoney DH; Neurocritical Care Society Pharmacy SectionSeizure Prophylaxis in Neurocritical Care: A Review of Evidence-Based Support. Pharmacotherapy 2014 Apr;34(4):396-409. doi: 10.1002/phar.1374. Epub 2013 Nov 26.
    • Cook A, Goodwin H, Brophy G, Rhoney D. Use of antiepileptics for seizure prophylaxis after traumatic brain injury. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2013; Dec 1;70(23):2062-4. doi: 10.2146/ajhp130271.
    • Brophy GM, Mazzeo AT, Brar S, Bunnell K, Gilman C, Karnes HT, Hayes RL, Bullock R. Exposure of Cyclosporin A in Whole Blood, Cerebral Spinal Fluid and Brain Extracellular Fluid Dialysate in Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma 2013:30;1484-89. Published online Mar 29, 2013. DOI: 10.1089/neu.2012.2524
    • Brophy GM, Candeloro C, Robles JR, Brophy DF. Recombinant Activated Factor VII Use in Critically Ill Patients: Clinical Outcomes and Thromboembolic Events. Ann Pharmacother 2013;47(4):447-54. Published Online, 26 Mar 2013.
    • Riviello JJ, Claassen J, LaRoche SM, Sperling MR, Alldredge B, Bleck TP, Glauser T, Shutter L, Treiman DM, Vespa PM, Bell R, Brophy GM. Treatement of Status Epilepticus: An international Survey of Experts. Neurocrit Care 2013; Apr;18(2):193-200. Published online Oct 25, 2012. doi: 10.1007/s12028-012-9790-1.
    • Varney KL, Voils SA, Chenault GA, Brophy GM. Sedation Practices in Adult Patients on Mechanical Ventilation in the United States: Results from the United States Real-Time Evaluation of Sedation Therapy (U-REST) Study. Ann Pharmacother 2012;46: 1331-1339 doi:10.1345/aph.1R037 Published Online ahead of print, 18 Sept 2012.
    • Brophy DF, Harpe SE, Carl D, Brophy G. An Epidemiological Study of Anemia and Renal Dysfunction in Patients Admitted to ICUs across the United States. Anemia 2012; Article ID 938140: 6 pages. doi:10.1155/2012/938140.
    • Brophy GM, Bell R, Claassen J, et al. Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Status Epilepticus. Neurocritical Care 2012;17(1):3-23. Apr 24, 2012. [Epub ahead of print]
    • Cook AM, Castle A, Green A, Lesch C, Morrison C, Rhoney D, Parker D, Tesoro E, Brophy G, Goodwin H, Gokun J, Makii J, McAllen K, Bledsoe K, Sangha K, Weant K, Liang N, Murphy-Human T. Practice Variations in the Management of Status Epilepticus. Neurocrit Care 2012;17:24–30
    • Papa, L., Lewis, L., Falk, J.L., Silvestri, S., Giordano, P., Brophy, G.M., Demery, J., Liu, M.C., Mo, J., Akinyi, L., Mondello, S., Schmid, K., Robertson, C.S., Tortella, F.C., Hayes, R.L., Wang, K.K.W. Serum levels of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase distinguish mild traumatic brain injury from trauma controls and are elevated in mild and moderate traumatic brain injury patients with intracranial lesions and neurosurgical intervention. J Trauma 2012;72:1335–1344.
    • Papa, L., Lewis, L., Falk, J.L., Silvestri, S., Giordano, P., Brophy, G.M., Demery, J., Liu, M.C., Mo, J., Akinyi, L., Schmid, K., Robertson, C.S., Tortella, F.C., Hayes, R.L., Wang, K.K.W. and Mondello, S. Elevated Levels of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Breakdown Products in Mild and Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury are Associated With Intracranial Lesions and Neurosurgical Intervention. Ann Emerg Med 2011. (Epub Nov 8, 2011, ahead of print]
    • Stefania Mondello, Linnet Akinyi; Andras Buki; Steven Robicsek; Andrea Gabrielli; Joseph Tepas; Linda Papa; Gretchen M.Brophy; Frank Tortella; Ronald L. Hayes; Kevin K. Wang. CLINICAL UTILITY OF SERUM 1 LEVELS OF UBIQUITIN C-TERMINAL HYDROLASE AS A BIOMARKER FOR SEVERE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY. Neurosurgery 2012; Mar;70(3):666-75.
    • MacLaren, Robert; Dager, William; Bolesta, Scott; Brophy, Gretchen; Dell, Kamila; Gerlach, Anthony; Kristeller, Judith; Micek, Scott; Hess, Mary; Bentley, Michael; Juang, Paul; Kane-Gill, Sandra; Haase, Krystal; Mann, Henry; Miller, Colby; Pepe, Diane; Southwood, Robin; Weant, Kyle; Rebuck, Jill; Wood, Christopher. An Opinion Paper Outlining Recommendations for Training, Credentialing, and Documenting and Justifying Critical Care Pharmacy Services. Pharmacotherapy 2011;31(8):135e–175e. Pharmacotherapy 2011;31(8):829.
    • Shulkin DJ, Alexandrov AW, Bernard D, Brophy GM, Hess D, Kohlbrenner J, Martin-Schild S, Mayer S, Peacock WF, Qureshi AI, Sung GY, Jewell KE and Lyles A. Impact of Systems of Care and Blood Pressure Management on Stroke Outcomes. Population Health Management. Population Health Management. December 2011, 14(6): 267-275. doi:10.1089/pop.2010.0068. [Epub 2011, Apr 20 ahead of print]
    • Brophy GM, Mondello S, Papa L, Robicsek S, Gabrielli A, Tepas III J, Buki A, Robertson C, Tortella F, Hayes RL, Wang KK. Biokinetic Analysis of Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patient Biofluids. J Neurotrauma 2011, Jun;28(6):861-70. Epub 2011 Apr 8.
    • Tesoro EP, Brophy GM. Pharmacological Management of Seizures and Status Epilepticus in Critically Ill Patients. J Pharm Practice 2010;23(5) 441-454. [Epub 2010 Aug 12].
    • Dasta JF, Boucher BA, Brophy GM, Cohen H, Hassan E, MacLaren R, Muzykovsky K, Martin SJ, Pass SE, Seybert AL. Intravenous to Oral Conversion of Antihypertensives: A Toolkit for Guideline Development. Ann Pharmacotherapy 2010;44:1430-47.
    • Mondello S, Robicsek S, Gabrielli A, Brophy G, Papa L, Tepas III J, Robertson C, Buki A, Scharf D, Jixiang M, Akinyi L, Muller U, Wang KK, Hayes RL. alphaII-Spectrin Breakdown Products (SBDPs): Diagnosis and Outcome in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients. J Neurotrauma. 2010;27:1203-1213.
    • Papa L, Oli M, Liu MC, Pineda J, Zheng W, Kobeissy F, Tepas III J, Robinson G, Robicsek S, Gabrielli A, Heaton S, Demery J, Brophy GM, Layon J, Robertson C, Hayes R, Wang KK. UCH-L1 IS A NOVEL BIOMARKER IN HUMANS FOR SEVERE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY. Crit Care Med 2010;38:138-44.
    • Mazzeo AT, Brophy GM, Robles JR, Gilman C, Hayes RL, Bullock R. Safety and tolerability of Cyclosporin A in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: Results from a Prospective, Randomized Trial. J Neurotrauma 2009;26:2195-206.
    • Kim KS, Brophy GM. Venous Thromboembolism Incidence and Risk Factors in Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit patients with Spontaneous or Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage Receiving Pharmacologic and Mechanical Prophylaxis. Neurocritical Care 2009; 11:28-33. Published online 24 February 2009.
    • Brophy GM, Pineda JA, Papa L, Lewis SB, Valadka AB, Hannay HJ, Heaton SC, Demery JA, Liu MC, Aikman JM, Akle V, Tepas JA, Wang KK, Robertson CS, Hayes RL. aII-Spectrin Breakdown Product Cerebrospinal Fluid Suggest Differences in Kinetics Cellular Injury Mechanisms after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma 2009;26:1-9.
    • Brophy GM, Sheehan V, Shapiro MJ, Lottenberg L, Scarlata D, Audhya P. A US Multicenter, Retrospective, Observational Study of Erythropoiesis-stimulating Agent Utilization in Anemic, Critically Ill Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Clinical Therapeutics 2008;30:2324-34.
    • Papa L., Robinson G.,Oli M., Pineda J., Demery J., Brophy G., Robicsek SA., Gabrielli A., Robertson CS., Wang KW., Hayes RL. Use of Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Management of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients. Expert Opin Med Diagn.2008; 2(8):1-9.
    • JA Pineda, L Papa, SB Lewis, AB Valadka, HJ Hannay, SC Heaton, MC Liu, JM Aikman, V Akle, GM Brophy, JJ Tepas III, KW Wang, CS Robertson, RL Hayes. Clinical significance of ?II-spectrin breakdown products in CSF after severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotraum 2007;24:354-366.
    • Sessler, C.N., Gosnell, M., Grap, M.J., Brophy, G.M., O’Neal, P.V., Keane, K., Tesoro, E.J., Elswick, R.K. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale: Validity and reliability in adult intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 166:1338-1344.